The Reality of Mass




Electromagnetic Waves

E = 0.5mv2

E = mc2

Quantum Uncertainty











Although the logic used to interpret the behaviour of light as particle-waves contravenes the basic laws of classical physics, it provides the only seemingly credible explanation. Whilst the effect of particles and the motion of waves are evidently visible, the interpretation is somehow ambiguous. In reality, the apparent paradox of the behaviour of light is the result of human misperception of physical reality. Light is a manifestation of the vibration of a continuum of particles, namely, the U.Pís. Their frequency represents the frequency of light and their amplitude represents the temperature which is associated with that frequency.






















Gravity is induced as a result of the scattering of U.Pís by the electron into the nucleus of the atom. U.Pís that scatter in the nucleus are expelled by the nucleons and in the process they impact on others around the perimeter of the atom. This cyclical impulse loading, which induces dynamic response in the surroundings, is the source of electromagnetic waves associated with molecular matter. In a given atom, each proton-electron unit produces specific electromagnetic waves based on the number of U.Pís penetrating their sphere and the distance to which they penetrate before they are expelled by the proton. The circumference, at the radius at which a U.P is expelled, measured from the centre of the nucleus, represents half the wave length of an electromagnetic wave produced by that expelled U.P. In fact, the factor (2π) used in the reduced Planckís constant relates to this radius, which we shall refer to as the U.Pís penetration radius.


Electromagnetic wave interference around a specific proton-electron arrangement, at a given temperature is invariable. Consequently, the electromagnetic waves emitted by the atoms of a specific chemical element, at a specific temperature are unique to the element, and hence the different spectral lines of different chemical elements. The observed quantised energy levels associated with different orbits of electrons at different temperatures reflects the discrete nature of the medium and the precise dynamic response and change in geometry of protons in response to change in the number and the momentum of U.Pís colliding with them.


The electromagnetic wave energy produced by a proton-electron unit depends on the U.P's penetration radius and the amplitude of the surrounding U.Pís as they impact against the proton. The observed energy of electromagnetic waves emerging from an atom is also influenced by the level of their interference in the quantum gravity zone, i.e., in the immediate atomís surroundings. There, the energy is either magnified or reduced through constructive or destructive interference of the impulses from the scattered U.Pís. Consequently, and since the observed frequencies incorporate response frequencies as well as interference, the exact radii of U.P penetration into the nucleus are difficult to determine. By virtue of the nature and continuity of U.Pís, electromagnetic waves are effectively a continuum. A single wave generated at the boundary of an atom propagates through the medium inducing an impulse in each U.P along its hemispherical surface and in the process it produces interference with other waves. In turn, each of those U.Pís induces waves in its surrounding U.Pís, and hence the dispersive nature of light and its apparent particle-wave duality.


Based upon the above description of light, the process described as photon emission is in reality a manifestation of impulse waves propagating through the U.P medium. Each U.P develops momentary void (mass) proportional to the impulse it receives, which enables it to transmit that impulse to other U.Pís as it oscillates against them. On the other hand, the apparent absorption of photons is the result of the damping effect offered by U.Pís around the nucleus. Whereas part of the electromagnetic waves falling on molecular matter is damped U.Pís around the atomic void, it is partly reflected by them along with those induced by U.Pís expelled by the protons. Where electromagnetic waves propagate through space, the speed of transfer of momentum in the U.P medium is the speed of light, which is dependent on their elasticity as well as their density and consequently on their level of agitation, i.e. on the temperature.


There can be no doubt that the concept of particle-wave duality of light and subatomic particles is the result of a misunderstanding of quantum reality. Momentum generated as a result of relative displacement of U.Pís causes voids (photonic mass) to develop and hence the reference to photons as energy packets. The idea that energy can do work in the absence of mass defies reality. In fact, if we consider the accepted mathematical formulation of the energy of light E, in terms of Planck constant h, and the frequency f, we should find that the mass of a photon is incorporated into Planck constant h. The energy E is given by:


          E = h. f                                                           (1)


The frequency f is the U.Pís impulse frequency, which is related to the wave length l, through the speed of light c. Thus,


          f = c /l                                                           (2)


Since E = mc2 substituting for E and f, from equation (2) into equation (1) and rearranging, we obtain:


          h = mh l c                                                      (3)


where mh is the mass of the photon


Given that h and c are constant, it is clear that the mass of a photon mh, varies with the wave length l. From equation (3), we can calculate the maximum mass of a photon for a given wave length. For example, a photon with a frequency in the violet range in the light spectrum, having a wave length of 400nm has a maximum mass of 5.5 x10-36 kg. Using the relevant equations of dynamics, it should be possible to estimate the amplitude of that photon, which is dependent upon the applied impulse and the state of the photon on receiving the impulse. However, in reality the behaviour of a single photon is subject to uncertainty.





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Accessing memory is a process of transferring the original oscillatory motion of a magnetic field to subatomic particles, e.g. electrons. Once transferred as signals the motion can be modulated to suit the output medium and amplified to any required level by further transfer of the motion to molecular structures. Amplifying signals is a process of mapping the motion of the subatomic particles to molecular matter and controlling the amplitude while maintaining the original signal frequency profile. The original signal may be kept intact.


Memory in the brain works in exactly the same way as that of electronic media, but of course it utilises different media for capturing, transferring, modulating and amplifying signals than those used in manufactured electronics. It utilises biological molecules. In fact, all biological structures are effectively memory systems, with DNA representing the ultimate in memory systems technology. Since memory is temperature sensitive the molecules of gray matter are maintained at a near constant temperature. Any significant changes in temperature would result in memory loss. In fact, memory loss in old age may be attributed to dysfunctional blood circulation which causes both damage to signals as a result of temperature fluctuations and irreparable damage to connections which renders parts of the memory inaccessible to consciousness.


Normally, when we observe an object or witness an event taking place, signals (details) from whatever we are observing are grasped by our senses from the surroundings. Those signals reach our brains through the nervous system and register their effect on the molecular structure of our gray matter. The precision with which signal frequencies are captured and maintained, the location in which they are captured and stored together with our ability to compare new signals with previously stored ones is what gives us our sense of memory and hence our identity. It is the way in which our minds are calibrated to modulate signals that enables us to perceive variations in those signals as different colours, and different sounds, etc.


In the process of recalling past experiences, those signals are displayed in an output area in the brain and in view of consciousness. Logical continuity of recollection is maintained only through consciousness and sound brain functionality. In the absence of consciousness, as well as in cases of defects in the grey matter, recollection is no longer logically controlled. Consequently, signals may surface in the output area of the brain illogically, as in the case of night dreams, when taking substances that interfere with the correct working of the brain and in cases of physical damage or mental ill health.


Memory can also be interfered with by third parties in the absence of consciousness, as in the case of hypnosis. There is therefore a direct relationship between memory contents, as a collection of magnetic fields, and consciousness as a non-physical reality. Regardless of its nature and how it arises in the brain, consciousness is the only non-physical phenomenon in the material world. Unlike energy, it neither dissipates in space, nor does it arise in regions beyond certain localities in the brain. It is has no intensity. It is either present or absent. Yet it can influence physical reality, be it at a price.



















































































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Published May 2010


Last updated   

01 Sep 2011